-What is positive space?

The objects that are initially seen. (trees and buildings in photo above)

-What is negative space?

The “background” or the space the object doesn’t take up. (moon and outer space in photo)

Note: Positive space and negative space can be interchangeable.

Example: 
If you see the cup then the white is positive space and the black is negative space, but if you see the two faces then the black is positive space and the white is negative space.

-Would an object closer to a viewer normally appear lower or higher in an image?

Lower

-Would objects in the distance usually appear lighter or darker when compared to objects that are closer to the viewer?

Darker

-Would objects that are closer to the viewer appear to have sharper focus than those in the background?

Yes

-Are there artists, designers, advertisements that you can think of who make good use of space? Which ones?

The first thing I did was open a new tab in google chrome to see if any of my favorite websites had logos using space in a unique way and found this:


I think this logo uses space in an interesting way because the positive space would initially be associated with the red color, but when you read the second half you would associate the black color with being the positive space.


The first picture has the largest format and has the best details as a result. The second image is nearly the same size as the third, but is more pixelated. If it were put into a smaller resolution, it would look smoother. And at the same time, if the third image would be put into a larger resolution, then it would become pixelated.

Here is an optical illusion that uses illusionary space:


We see the bottom left elephant as being closer to us, because of the use of illusionary space. Usually the object closer to us is larger, but in this picture the elephants are the same size. Oddly enough the illusion makes it look like the elephant farthest away is larger. If this picture were to be replicated in real life without using the trickery of the sidewalk and the top of the wall converging so quickly, the elephant in the bottom left would be the largest and most detailed.

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